Definition: It is a state of constant or long-lasting dilatation of the bronchioles.

Etiology (causes):

I. Mechanical –

(a) Inward breath of an unfamiliar body.
(b) Strain of an aneurysm.
(c) Bronchopulmonary neoplasm.
(d) Calcified tuberculous organs.
(e) Aspiratory fibrosis coming about because of –
(I) Bronchopneumonia,
(ii) Syphilis,
(iii) Tuberculosis
(iv) entering chest wounds

II. Infective –

(a) Ongoing Suppurative bronchitis.
(b) Lung canker.
(c) Measles.
(d) Outshining hack.

III. Intrinsic –

(a) Atelectasis.
(b) Kartagener’s disorder.
(c) Fibrocystic sickness of pancreas.

Pathology: The bronchial dilatations might be barrel Clínica de Reabilitação em SP  shaped or cylindrical, sacular or globular, fusiform or pyriform, moniliform or dot like. The bronchiectatic pits for the most part shaped in lower projections. Lining layer is framed by granulation tissue or ciliated epithelium. Provocative changes are found in more profound layers of bronchial dividers. Encompassing lung tissues might be fibrosed.

Clinical Elements: Side effects –

(a) Hack with expectoration, generally more awful in morning, with foul and rotten sputum.
(b) Hemoptysis, going in sum from blood stained sputum to monstrous drain.
(c) Fever, when intense irritation is superimposed.
(d) Chest torment, late evening perspiring, deficiency of weight and so forth might be available.

(1) General-Proof of pre-eclampsia shown by squandering, hindered development, cyanosis, clubbing of fingers and toes, dyspnoea, sputum-huge. Foul.
(2) Investigation Chest developments lessened on the impacted side.
(3) Palpation-Vocal fremitus decreased.
(4) Percussion-Hindered reverberation.
(5) Auscultation-Bronchial or huge breathing, with bronchophony. Cardiovascular summit uprooted to the side of sore, coarse crepitations over the impacted region.


(a) Blood shows leucocytosis with expanded polymorphs.
(b) Sputum-in a funnel shaped cup it shows 3 layers foamy above, turbid in focus store underneath. Culture generally shows H. influenzae.
(c) X-beam of chest shows areas of fibrosis or fogginess, with expanded bronchial markings.
(d) Lipidobronchography normally affirms dilatation.
(e) Bronchoscopy-sometimes accommodating.


In the event of early determination and legitimate treatment visualization is great.

Differential Determination:

(a) Ongoing Suppurative bronchitis.
(b) Interlobar empyema.
(c) Lung canker.
(d) Intrinsic cystic infected of the lungs.
(e) Bronchial carcinoma.
(f) Aspiratory tuberculosis


(a) Bronchopneumonia.
(b) Lung ulcer or gangrene.
(c) Dry pleurisy.
(d) Empyema.
(e) Pyopneumothorax.
(f) Pericarditis.
(g) Septicemia and pyemia.


(1) Postural seepage this relies upon the site of the injury.
(2) Inspiratory breathing activities.
(3) Bed rest, great nutritious food.
(4) Constant sepsis in the nose, mouth and pharynx ought to be dealt with.
(5) Iron deficiency ought to be adjusted.
(6) Careful treatment – showed in confined sores in youthful patients with viable general condition.